Previously referred to as “Resochin”, Chloroquine was first discovered in 1924 at Bayer laboratories. Its first use was initially ignored as it was found to be toxic to people. Chloroquine tlr inhibitor Hydroxychloroquine sulfate tab acta Hydroxychloroquine dose in rheumatoid arthritis For example, chloroquine-resistant malaria is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria, and resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine also occurs in this region. Chloroquine has long been used in the treatment or prevention of malaria from Plasmodium vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae, excluding the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, for it started to develop widespread resistance to it. South Africa Related Maps. Map 2-25. Malaria transmission areas in South Africa. Yellow Fever. Requirements Required if traveling from a country with risk of YF virus transmission and ≥1 year of age, including transit 12 hours in an airport located in a country with risk of YF virus transmission. 1 These trials showed that chloroquine eliminated malaria and was appropriate to be used as an antimalarial drug. Thus, it was not until World War II that the government of the United States sponsored the clinical trials of chloroquine as an antimalarial drug. Chloroquine-resistant malaria is now widespread in africa Drug-resistant malaria reaches Southeast Asia borders, could spread to., Chloroquine - Wikipedia Where is chloroquine effective Chloroquine was the most common anti-malarial used according to surveys from 14 of 21 countries analysed, predominantly in West Africa. SP was most commonly reported in two of 21 countries. Patterns of chloroquine use and resistance. - Malaria Journal. Yellow Fever Vaccine & Malaria Prophylaxis Information, by.. How is malaria treated and prevented? Facts. Chloroquine-resistant P. vivax malaria was first identified in 1989 among Australians living in or traveling to Papua New Guinea. P. vivax resistance to chloroquine has also now been identified in Southeast Asia, Ethiopia, and Madagascar. Isolated reports have suggested chloroquine-resistance P. vivax in other countries and regions, but further evaluation is needed. This is because the majority of infections in Africa are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous of the four human malaria parasites. It is also because the most effective malaria vector – the mosquito. Anopheles gambiae– is the most widespread in Africa and the most difficult to control. Plasmodium falciparum, which accounts for 40% to 60% of malaria cases worldwide and more than 95% of all malaria deaths Plasmodium vivax, which causes 30% to 40% of malaria worldwide, but is rarely fatal Plasmodium ovale, an uncommon parasite found mostly in West Africa Plasmodium malariae, also uncommon.